Cable Television

Coaxial cable is usually used to carry the cable television signal into a residence.

Cable television is a system of distributing telephone service, and similar non-television services may also be provided through these cables.

The abbreviation CATV is often used for cable television. It originally stood for Community Access Television or Community Antenna Television, from cable television’s origins in 1948: in areas where over-the-air reception was limited by distance from transmitters or mountainous terrain, large “community antennas” were constructed, and cable was run from them to individual homes. The origins of cable distributed by cable in some European cities as far back as 1924.

Diagram of a modern coaxial cable to individual subscriber homes.


[edit] Description

In order to receive cable television at a given location, cable distribution lines must be available on the local utility poles or underground utility lines. Coaxial cable brings the signal to the customer’s building through a service drop, an overhead or underground cable. If the subscriber’s building does not have a cable service drop, the cable company will install one. The standard cable used in the U.S. is RG-6, which has a 75 ohm impedance, and connects with a type F connector. The cable company’s portion of the wiring usually ends at a distribution box on the building exterior, and built-in cable usually distributes the signal through the walls to jacks in different rooms to which televisions are connected. Multiple cables to different rooms are split off the incoming cable with a small device called a splitter.

Most American PEG), for a low rate; this is called “Basic Cable“.

[edit] How it works

In the most common system, multiple television channels (as many as 500) are distributed to subscriber residences through a upstream” channels occupy frequencies of 5 to 42 MHz. Subscribers pay with a monthly fee. Subscribers can choose from several levels of service, with “premium” packages including more channels but costing more.

At the local headend, the feed signals from the individual television channels are received by Commercial advertisements for local business are also inserted in the programming at the headend (the individual channels, which are distributed nationally, also have their own nationally oriented commercials).

[edit] Hybrid fiber coaxial systems

Modern cable systems are large, with a single network and headend often serving an entire coaxial cable distribution lines on utility poles, from which cables branch out to subscriber residences.

[edit] Cable television deployments

It is mostly available in microwave-based systems are used instead.

[edit] Asia and Australia

[edit] Philippines

“NUVUE”, the first cable television system, was set up in Baguio City spearheaded by American expatriate Russel Swartley in 1969. Popularity of CATV started in the 1980s after the Marcos administration. Cable giant HDTV via the new SkyHD Cable TV service.

[edit] Mongolia

There are several cable TV providers in Mongolia. The main three are “SuperVision”, “Hiimori” and “Sansar CATV”. All three cover approximately 15 national channels and 40 foreign channels, such as CNN, BBC, and NHK. “Sansar” has biggest network in Ulaanbaatar. SuperVision is the first digital cable television in Mongolia and other CATVs are planning to launch digital cable television with CA systems.

[edit] Turkey

In Turkey, there is a Satellate and Cable TV provider. Türksat A.Ş. 1990’s Cable TV Started in eight cities. İstanbul, Ankara, İzmir, Adana, Bursa, Konya, Kayseri, Gaziantep. 2011’s in 21 city. There are 4 main services: Cable TV, wide band Internet, Digital TV, and VOIP.

[edit] Maldives

There are only two cable TV operators in the country.[Asia.

[edit] Australia

Cable television began in the early 1990s in Australia. Several companies appeared including FOXTEL, Galaxy TV, OPTUS TV, Selectv and Austar offering services to homes across the major states of Australia. Services to Tasmania and the Northern Territory took longer to start, not until the mid 2000s when the digital satellite pay television service had picked up momentum and was beginning to be used for metropolitan installs and not just rural installs.

FOXTEL dominates the cable television landscape and is now rebroadcast by Austar (in rural areas) and formerly OPTUS TV, until the latter ceased broadcasting in 2011. Galaxy TV and Selectv likewise no longer operate. The effective FOXTEL monopoly has drawn criticism within Australia for being anti-competitive and inflating prices.

[edit] Latin America

[edit] Panama

Panamanian company Rexa started Cable TV deployment in 1983 to Panama City. In other regions they also had local cable companies. Rexa’s successor, Cableonda, was dominant throughout the 1990s, and expanded to Chiriqui Province. Since 2000Actually the most important are: Cable Onda (40% share), Cable and Wireless (started on late 2009) and CTV.[citation needed]

[edit] Dominican Republic

Cable television in the soap operas, movies, cartoons, and sports programs.

The main service provider in the Dominican Republic is Telecable from Tricom. Aster is concentrated in Santo Domingo, but is expanding its service throughout the Dominican Republic. There are also new companies using new technologies that are expanding quickly such as Claro TV (Satellite TV).

[edit] Europe

[edit] Ireland

Cable television is the most common[citation needed] system for distributing multi-channel television in Ireland. With more than 40 year of history and extensive networks of both wired and “wireless” cable, Ireland is amongst the most cabled countries in Europe. Forty percent[1] of Irish homes received cable television in September 2006. The figure dropped slightly in the early years of the 21st century due to the increased popularity of satellite reception, notably Sky, but has stabilized recently.

In the Republic of Ireland, Longford service Crossan Cable.

[edit] United Kingdom

When the infant BBC Television service was started in 1936, Rediffusion, which had supplied cable radio services since 1928, started providing “Pipe TV” to its customers who had difficulties tuning into the weak TV broadcast signal.[2]

Suspended during World War II, the BBC service was re-established in June 1946, and had only one transmitter, at [4]

By law, these cable systems were restricted to the relay of the public broadcast channels, which meant that as the transmitter network became more comprehensive, the incentive to subscribe to cable was reduced and they began to lose customers. In 1982, a radical liberalization of the law on cable was proposed by the Information Technology Advisory Panel,[6] After setting up and receiving the conclusions of the Hunt Inquiry into Cable Expansion and Broadcasting Policy, the Government decided to proceed with liberalization and two pieces of legislation: the Cable and Broadcasting Act and the Telecommunications Act, were enacted in 1984.

The result was that cable systems were permitted to carry as many new television channels as they liked, as well as providing a telephone service and interactive services of many kinds (as since made familiar by the Internet). To maintain the momentum of the perceived commercial interest in this new investment opportunity, in 1983, the Government itself granted eleven interim franchises for new broadband systems each covering a community of up to around 100,000 homes, but the competitive franchising process was otherwise left to the new regulatory body, the Cable Authority, which took on its powers from January 1, 1985.

The franchising process proceeded steadily, but the actual construction of new systems was slow, as doubts about an adequate payback from the substantial investment persisted. By the end of 1990 almost 15 million homes had been included in franchised areas, but only 828,000 of these had been passed by broadband cable and only 149,000 were actually subscribing.[7] Thereafter, however, construction accelerated and take-up steadily improved.

The first new television channels launched for carriage on cable systems (going live in March 1984) were Telewest.

In 2005, it was announced that NTL and Telewest would merge, after a period of co-operation in the preceding few years. This merger was completed on March 3, 2006, with the company being named ntl Incorporated. For the time being, the two brand names and services were marketed separately. However, following NTL’s acquisition of Virgin Mobile, the NTL and Telewest services were rebranded Virgin Media on February 8, 2007, creating a single cable operator covering more than 95% of the UK cable market.[citation needed]

There are a small number of other surviving cable television companies in the UK outside of NTL including Lancashire).

Cable TV faces intense competition from video on demand.

However, subscription-funded digital terrestrial television (DTT) proved less of a competitive threat. The first system, ITV Digital, went into liquidation in 2002. Top Up TV later replaced it; however, this service is shrinking[citation needed] as the DVB-T multiplex owners are finding free-to-air broadcasting more profitable.[citation needed]

Another potential source of competition in the future will be TV over broadband internet connections; this is known as Internet Protocol television (IPTV). Some IPTV services are currently available in London, while services operated in Hull ceased in April 2006.[citation needed] As the speed and availability of broadband connections increase, more TV content can be delivered using protocols such as IPTV. However, its impact on the market is yet to be measured, as is consumer attitude toward watching TV programs on personal computer instead of television sets. At the end of 2006, BT (the UK’s former state owned monopoly phone company) started offering BT Vision, which combines the digital free-to-air standard Freeview through an aerial, and on-demand IPTV, delivered over a BT Broadband connection through the Vision set-top box (BT have chosen to deploy Microsoft’s Mediaroom platform for this.)[citation needed]

[edit] Finland

Finland also has a cable television infrastructure, which is also used for cable internet.

[edit] North America

[edit] Canada

In 1949, Broadcast Relay Service began negotiations for the implementation of what was to be the first large scale cable TV system in North America. The development of the system relied on reaching agreement with Quebec Hydro-Electric Commission to utilise their existing network of power poles supplying power to the Montreal Metro area. Initial discussions began with a meeting with Montreal City Council on June 21, 1949. After many months of negotiation, agreement was reached between Hydro Quebec and London, Ontario; which city is first is not clear. Initially, the systems brought American stations to viewers in Canada who had no Canadian stations to watch; broadcast television, though begun late in 1952 in Toronto and Montreal, did not reach a majority of cities until 1954.

In time, cable television was widely established to carry available Canadian stations as well as import American stations, which constituted the vast majority of signals on systems (usually only one or two Canadian stations, while some systems had duplicate or even triplicate coverage of American networks). During the 1970s, a growing number of Canadian stations pushed American channels off the systems, forcing several to expand beyond the original 12-channel system configurations. At the same time, the advent of fibre-optic technology enabled companies to extend their systems to nearby towns and villages that by themselves were not viable cable television markets.

[edit] United States

Cable television in the [8]

rental charge.

[edit] Other cable-based services

Coaxial cables are capable of bi-directional carriage of signals as well as the transmission of large amounts of cable telephony and wireless services, using both unlicensed and licensed spectrum.

Broadband Internet is achieved over coaxial cable by using network data into a type of digital signal that can be transferred over coaxial cable. One problem with some cable systems is the older amplifiers placed along the cable routes are unidirectional thus in order to allow for uploading of data the customer would need to use an analog telephone modem to provide for the upstream connection. This limited the upstream speed to 31.2k and prevented the always-on convenience broadband internet typically provides. Many large cable systems have upgraded or are upgrading their equipment to allow for bi-directional signals, thus allowing for greater upload speed and always-on convenience, though these upgrades are expensive.

In Internet Protocol (IP) traffic or the Internet.

Beginning in 2004 in the United States, the traditional cable television providers and traditional telecommunication companies increasingly compete in providing voice, video and data services to residences. The combination of TV, telephone and Internet access is commonly called telcos offer it.

More recently, several US cable operators have begun offering wireless services to their subscribers. Most notably was the September 2008 launch of Optimum Wi-Fi by Comcast, have announced trials of a similar service in sections of the US Northeast.

[edit] History and beginnings of Cable TV-originated live programs

During the 1980s, mandated regulations not unlike television markets in the early 1980s.

With the development of the internet, by the late 1990s and early 2000, much of that regulation had been replaced where newer industry technologies developed, offering viewers alternate choices for local events and programming leading to what is today, that being Digital Cable, Internet, and Phone being offered to consumers, bundled, by 2010.

[edit] See also

[edit] References

[edit] Further reading

[edit] External links

Source: Wikipedia