broadcasting of sports events

The broadcasting of sports events is the coverage of sports commentators describing the events as they happen.

Contents

[edit] History

[edit] United States

In 1911, more than 1,000 people gathered in downtown Lawrence, Kansas to watch a mechanical reproduction of the 1911 Kansas vs. Missouri football game while it was being played. A Western Union telegraph wire was set up direct from Columbia, Missouri. A group of people then would announce the results of the previous play and used a large model of a football playing field to show the results. Those in attendance cheered as though they were watching the game live, including the school’s legendary Rock Chalk, Jayhawk cheer.[1]

The first voice broadcast of a sporting event took place on 11 April 1921 when Westinghouse station [3]

The first West Virginia University.

On 17 May 1939, the United States’ first televised sporting event, a college baseball game between the broadcasting of college football games on television in the United States has been a fixture of the major networks on a continuous basis since that time. The NCAA severely restricted broadcasts of college football from the 1950s until a judge ruled that the action was a violation of antitrust rules in 1982, which allowed for a much greater expansion of college football broadcasting.

NBC broadcast the first televised Super Bowl, transforming it into a primetime spectacle from an afternoon broadcast. The price for the NFL’s broadcast rights has increased steadily over the past several decades, in part because of bidding wars between the numerous networks and the fear of losing stature due to the loss of NFL programming; as of the most recent contract the league nets annual fees of over $5 billion, or half of the league’s overall revenue, from television rights alone. Four of the five major sports television units in the United States, and the four companies that control all of the major broadcast networks, currently own some NFL rights.

NBC also broadcast an NHL game in 1940; the league would briefly air games in the 1950s, but due to a dispute over how much of the rights fee money the players would receive (and difficulties programming around the two Canadian teams in the league NBC Sports Network) took over NHL broadcast rights, having since renewed those rights through 2021.

The first ever television broadcast of a basketball game occurred on 28 February 1940 when the University of Pittsburgh defeated Fordham at Madison Square Garden on NBC station W2XBS.[9] Professional basketball has been aired on television since 1953, shortly after the founding of the National Basketball Association, and has been aired on television ever since. College basketball, on the other hand, was much later in gaining a television foothold. Although the NCAA Tournament has aired since 1962, it was not until the mid-1970s that regular-season college basketball games would air on major network television.

Outside of the networks, the only other source for national sports television was through early bowl games in an era when televised college football was highly restricted.

The debut of retransmission consent fees from cable subscribers, which has led to numerous disputes and the dropping of channels from cable lineups. Individual leagues began launching their own networks in the 2000s; specialty networks of other sports have had varying levels of success.

The Internet has also allowed greater broadcasting of sports events, both in video and audio forms and through free and subscription channels. With an Internet broadcast, even a locally broadcast high school football game can be heard worldwide on any device with an audio output and an Internet connection. Individual leagues (including major ones) all have subscription services that allow subscribers to watch their sporting events for a fee.

[edit] United Kingdom

The first sports event broadcast in the United Kingdom was a Rugby Union international between England and Wales, broadcast from Twickenham in January 1927. Two weeks later the first broadcast of a football match took place, with the BBC covering Arsenal’s league fixture against Sheffield United at Highbury. Listeners to the broadcast could use numbered grids published in the Radio Times in order to ascertain in which area of the pitch the action was taking place due to a second commentator reading out grid references during the match.[10]

The United Kingdom saw the first live television broadcast of a football match, with the BBC showing a specially arranged fixture between Arsenal and Arsenal Reserves on 16 September 1937.[11]

[edit] Canada

Broadcasting of sports started with descriptions of play sent via [13]

In 1933, Hewitt called a Hockey Night in Canada in October 1952. Today it is consistently among the highest-rated programs in Canada.

Broadcasting of the TSN). Terrestrial television broadcasts of CFL games ended in 2008, when TSN acquired exclusive TV rights to the league.

American sports broadcasts are widely available in Canada, both from Canadian stations and from Toronto Raptors both claim all of Canada as their “territory,” allowing Blue Jays and Raptors games to be broadcast nationwide.

[edit] Broadcasting rights and contracts

Broadcasting rights and contracts limit who can show footage of the event.

In the [1]

In the NFL Sunday Ticket. Regular season games involving local teams (except the NFL) may also be viewed on those local stations or regional sports channels that have a contract to broadcast that team’s games.

TV Rights of the UEFA Champions League, per country. Season 2009-2010, according to footbiz

  • United Kingdom: 179 million euros
  • Italy: 98 million euros
  • Spain: 91 million euros
  • Germany: 85 million euros
  • France: 52 million euros
  • Croatia: 28 million euros
  • Greece: 8,5 million euros
  • Poland: 8,1 million euros
  • North America: 3,5 million euros
  • Belgium: 2,9 million euros
  • Australia: 2,9 million euros
  • Ireland: 2 million euros
  • Canada: 0,4 million euros
  • Cyprus: 0,2 million euros

[edit] Protected events

In the UK, the regulations set out in the Commonwealth Games should be available as highlights or with a short delay.

A similar concept applies in Italy and Australia to some important sport events.

[edit] Major sports broadcasts

Events that have been described as “the most watched” per various definitions include the Formula One World Championship.

[edit] Broadcasters by country

[edit] United Kingdom

The British media is dominated by national outlets, with local media playing a much smaller role. Traditionally the a dedicated UK version of ESPN.

Radio sports coverage is also important. The BBC’s BBC Local Radio also provides extensive coverage of sport, giving more exposure to second-tier clubs which get limited national coverage.

Sports on television ranges through many channels including BBC1, ITV, SkySports and SkySportsHD. Football and rugby are most popular.

[edit] United States

In the United States, national and local media both serve major roles in sports broadcasting. Depending on the league and event, telecasts are often shown on College sports conferences, or a specific league.

[edit] Dedicated sports channels

There are sports channels that show sporting events, sports news, and various sport-related programming.[14]

[edit] In Europe

[edit] In the United States

National Sports Networks:

Spanish Networks:

Speciality Sports Networks:

College Sports Networks:

Regional Sports Networks:

High School Sports online Broadcasting

Some of the world’s largest sports clubs have their own channels, or own shares in other sports networks. Examples include Yankees Entertainment and Sports and Manchester United TV. An example of the latter, the Boston Red Sox own a majority stake of the regional New England Sports Network which retains the New England area television broadcast rights for the majority of Red Sox games (except for the few which are carried nationally on Fox or ESPN and playoff games). The New York Mets own SportsNet New York jointly with Comcast and Time Warner Cable, and Madison Square Garden has its own network as well, where they broadcast original shows, New York Rangers, New York Knicks, and high school basketball games. In addition, the Big Ten Network is dedicated to airing teams from different collegiate sports in the Big Ten Conference, which holds joint ownership in the channel with Fox. The Longhorn Network, in which ESPN owns a stake, is even more specialized, designed as an outlet for the athletic program of the University of Texas at Austin (although it has also aired football games of the UT system’s San Antonio campus).

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ “100 years ago: Football fans enjoy mechanized reproduction of KU-MU game”. Lawrence Journal-World. 27 November 2011. http://www2.ljworld.com/news/2011/nov/27/100-years-ago-football-fans-enjoy-mechanized-repro/?print. Retrieved 27 December 2011.
  2. ^ “KDKA Firsts”. KDKA. 2010. http://kdka.cbslocal.com/2010/04/01/kdka-firsts/. Retrieved 8 November 2010.
  3. ^ http://w5ac.tamu.edu/5xb.php
  4. ^ “SPORTS AND TELEVISION”. Museum of Broadcast Communications. 2008. http://www.museum.tv/eotvsection.php?entrycode=sportsandte. Retrieved 30 November 2009.
  5. ^ Koppett, Leonard (Spring 1999). “Baker Field: Birthplace of Sports Television”. Columbia College Today (Columbia University). http://www.college.columbia.edu/cct_archive/spr99/34a.html. Retrieved 30 November 2009.
  6. ^ “1936 German Olympics”. Television History. 2010. http://www.tvhistory.tv/1936%20German%20Olympics%20TV%20Program.htm. Retrieved 17 May 2010.
  7. ^ “Sports Knowhow”. Sports Knowhow. 2010. http://www.sportsknowhow.com/football/history/football-history-4.shtml. Retrieved 8 November 2010.
  8. http://books.google.com/books?id=MqLdmm6zT8YC&lpg=PA50%5C&ots=owIESUpRKR&pg=PA50. Retrieved 2012-03-25.
  9. ^ “American Sportscasters Online: Sportscasting firsts”. American Sportscasters Association. http://www.americansportscastersonline.com/sportscastingfirsts.html. Retrieved 2012-03-25.
  10. ^ http://www.arsenal.com/news/news-archive/ggm-40-highbury-stages-first-live-broadcast
  11. ^ http://www.arsenal.com/history/on-this-day-in
  12. ^ Kitchen, p.246
  13. ^ Hewitt, p. 25
  14. ^ TRACE Sports. Factual entertainment and lifestyle content dedicated to sports celebrities.
  • Hewitt, Foster (1967). Foster Hewitt, his own story. Ryerson Press.
  • Kitchen, Paul (2008). Win, Lose or Wrangle: The Inside Story of the Old Ottawa Senators – 1883-1935. Manotick Ontario: Penumbra Press.



Source: Wikipedia